Dr. Md. Shairul Mashreque and Nasir Uddin : There are several incidences of violence and the violation of human rights with a plenty of right focused organisations, civil societies in other words, raising voice against such violation. Violence against child may be equated with injuring/even killing mothers and under mining child survival. It creates health problem and behavioural disorder on the part of child. The rights of the child are violated by the acts of both verbal and psychical aggression at home and out of home. A number of national and international organisations including state department of USA, Amnesty International, Transparency International and various human rights groups regularly publish annual reports on human rights violation. Fierce persecution against child has featured prominently in the annual reports. It does seem that human rights situation has deteriorated in Bangladesh with women folk being the worst victim various forms of violence. Many young women, we mean female children have been victims of one of the worst forms of violence like eve-teasing. Some human rights groups rose to the occasion grossly protesting such atrocities. This social problem is taking a heavy toll as spoilt and unruly youngsters are simply unmanageable. There happens to be a moral crunch spoiling and derailing the youth and the present generation. Moral lesson is the need of our with child’s parents and teachers playing a vital role. The government ought to control all means of modern information and communication technology (ICT). Negative use of ICT gradually, pornography destroy all our good instincts. Mobile phone should be used only for information not for taking snaps, recording songs/music and enjoying music and uploading any obscene ultra-modern dance for publicity. The miscreants are ruling the roost all to the detriment of public safety and security. In Bangladesh like other democratic countries human rights are protected by constitutional guarantee. The international human rights norms have been enshrined in part III of the constitution of Bangladesh as fundamental rights and the Supreme Court has been entrusted by the constitution with the duty of safeguarding and enforcing those rights and prevents any violation of them by any authority of the state. Articles 27, 28 and 31 of the constitutions lay down general principles regarding the protecting of children and others from all forms of Discrimination. Laws relating to child rights in Bangladesh include: the penal code, 1860, the Divorce Act, 1869, the contract Act, 1872, the Guardians and Wards Act (amended by presidential Ordinance no. 50 of 1982), the code of criminal procedure, 1898, the Mines Act 1923, the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, the Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act 1933, the children (pledging of labour) Act 1933, the Employment of children Act, 1938, the vagrancy Act of 1943, the Minimum Wage Ordinance 1961, the Shops and Establishment Act 1965, the Factories Act, 1965, the cruelty to women and children (special provisions) Act, 1995. All these constitutional and legal provisions are quite relevant to UNCRC. Besides, children Act 1974, children Rule 1976 and children policy 1994 provide for the implementation of UNCRC. Now it remains to attempt a brief introduction of United Nation Convention on Rights of the Children (UNCRC). It was approved by the General Assembly in November 1989; Bangladesh ratified UNCRC in September 1991. Human rights recognized and proclaimed by United Nation Convention (UNC) have drawn serious attention from Global Civil Societies (GCS). It suffices mentioning that emphasis is given not only on declaration of human rights on diverse frontiers of human development but also on governance issue to facilitate implementation of human right. The authority of the independent state of Nation has attempted to give a thematic shape to child right through policy exercise and institution building. So institutional intervention in the implementation of UNCRC with unparalleled thoroughness is obvious. The state in its National Plan of Action for Children (1997-2002) seeks to implement UNCRC through executive action, policy decisions, programs and projects/sub-projects. It prioritizes the theme like children in need of special protection (CNCP). CNCP is intended to locate and assist those children who are in special difficulties and need special treatment in terms of protection and empowerment. The National Children Policy 1994 and the Decade of Action Plan are the guiding instruments for the implementation of URCRC. The principal objective of State Policy is to formally harmonize all children development activities with the provisions of UNCRC. In pursuance of the fundamental principles of UNCRC the government already evolved operational strategies to implement National Children Policy (NCP). The main factor in implementation responsibility is GO-NGO collaboration. The Government of the state enjoins NGOs to assume implementation responsibilities under GO-NGO collaboration. NGOs not only operate as development partners; they have been shouldering the burden of implementation tasks for quite sometime in the pursuit of UNCRC. The role of civil societies cannot be left out of equation. It can spearhead civil movement projecting child protection and safety right as a case in point The UNCRC contains articles to protect child from all sorts of abuse. The authority of the state feel obligated to take necessary measures for the protection of child rights. Article 1- defines a child as a person under the age of 18. Article 2- forbids discrimination of children on many grounds. Article 3- enjoins all parties to take the best interest of the child into account in every respect. Article 5- and 18 of the convention refer to parental guidance and responsibilities and state’s obligations to assist parent in fulfilling such responsibilities. Articles 29 insists that the education of children should include preparation for a responsible life in a free society.
(Dr. Md. Shairul Mashreque is a Professor, Department of Public Administration, Chittagong University, Bangladesh and Nasir Uddin is a Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Chittagong University, Bangladesh.)